Japan is famous for its long and unusual archaeological record and in particular the so-called Jomon cultures which lasted from around 10,000 years ago until the importation of rice-agriculture only 3,000 years ago. During this period no animals were domesticated and only a small range of plants were cultivated (but not domesticated) and this contrasts with most other areas of the world, including all Europeans.
Recent activity at the Santorini volcano suggests magma is currently accumulating a few kilometres below surface. My study aims to constrain the volume and location of melt beneath this volcano, using a high-resolution imaging technology that has been developed for petroleum exploration.
The Earth has a bimodal surface elevation reflecting the contrasting chemical and mechanical properties of the continental and oceanic crust. The oceanic crust is dense, unstable, and recycled back into the mantle within 200 Myr through plate tectonics, whereas the continental crust – due to its lower density – tends to remain at the Earth’s surface, recording each step of our planet's evolution. For billions of years the continental crust has evolved to form the environment we live in and the resources we depend on, and yet how and when it formed remain a great matter of debate.
Salvaged in 1982, the Mary Rose provides an unprecedented insight into Tudor society and technology. Although the low oxygen environment underwater helped to preserve the wood, interactions with bacteria, sea-water salts and sulfur compounds have and can continue to damage and degrade the wood structure. Whilst buried under the seabed, hydrogen sulfide formed by sulfur reducing bacteria migrated into the wood. This reacted with iron ions, from corroded fixtures, to form iron sulfides.
Since the Spanish conquest of the Incas, the social and economic fortunes of artisans in Ecuador have been influenced by changing national and international circumstances. From the colonial period, through independence and the liberal revolution to the mid-twentieth century, when Ecuador became the world’s largest banana exporter, artisans have been an important part of the country’s political economy.
The introduction of National Service had an enormous impact on the lives of the 2.3 million young men called up in Britain between 1949 and 1960. Many deferred until the end of their education or training, some failed the medical but most went into the Army, some to the Royal Air Force, and a few to the Navy. In uniform, the experiences of individual men could be very different indeed. A minority served in the front line, fighting wars in Korea or Malaya. Many had two years of boredom in camps in Britain.
Whether or not the Solar System has provided environments conducive to microbial life beyond Earth is a major focus of current space exploration. This endeavour is driven by the identification of a great diversity of extraterrestrial environments, such as ancient lakes on Mars and subsurface oceans on the icy moons of Jupiter. Investigating the habitability of these environments requires new tools and technology to be developed.
To evoke ‘the Muslim woman’ in the contemporary political climate is to conjure images of black veils and shrouded faces. The hijab becomes a symbol of clipped horizons and curtailed movement. And yet many Muslim women throughout history have countered these omnipresent images by participating in that most liberating form of movement: travel. For many Muslims, Islam’s central requirement to go on hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca, provided motivation and opportunity to travel.
Charting the emergence, size and longevity of the early state has challenged many anthropologists and archaeologists; the scope, duration and ethnic composition often proving elusive because of the lack of appropriate data. The kingdom of Northumbria 300–800 CE, was a powerful, contested territory and a linguistic and cultural melting pot. It provides an ideal laboratory in which archaeologists can explore the processes of early political formation, through the analysis of populations that lived through the significant social transformations of this time.
The power of the arts to sustain communities and to affect political and social change is a key focus of In Place Of War, a project that has been researching art in sites of conflict for over ten years. The project has many partners creating, or trying to create, their own cultural spaces. This project will formalise a global network of cultural spaces in sites of conflict, war and upheaval and explore what role they play.